Jacob Alson Long of Alamance – Confederate Artilleryman, Educator, Attorney, Legislator and Klan Leader
 
The son of Jacob and Jane Stuart Stockard Long, he was born 6 April 1846 at the old Long place near Graham, North Carolina.  Grandfather John Stockard served in the War of 1812 and represented Orange County in the General Assembly nearly continuously from 1826 to 1846.
 
Jacob was schooled at Alexander Wilson’s academy near Graham and another at Hyco, Virginia, leaving school in 1864 to join Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, serving in the artillery until the end came at Appomattox.
 
Returning to the family farm after the war, he studied law under William K. Ruffin (son of Chief Justice Thomas Ruffin) in Hillsborough and was licensed to practice in 1870.  In the turbulence of the immediate postwar, he established a branch of the Ku Klux Klan in Alamance County and quickly organized ten orders in Alamance and Caswell counties with many prominent area men on the rosters.
 
The Klan was organized to counter the radical Union League of the Republican party which was indoctrinating freedmen to vote Republican and against their white neighbors, as well as encouraging them to intimidate white residents with violence to keep them from the polls.  Long’s Klan, like others, was intended to “get armed blacks off the streets of Graham” and restore law and order.  He abruptly left for Arkansas after Reconstruction authorities became aware of the Klan activity, but returned to Graham six months later in 1871.  He was arrested as an accessory in the 26 February 1870 hanging of Wyatt Outlaw, leader of the Union League in Alamance County.  Outlaw was reported to have ordered local blacks to “Put to fire mills, barns and houses” of white residents.
 
Though he had no evidence to convict Long or others, Carpetbag Judge Albion Tourgee offered a bribe of immunity and immediate release if he would implicate leaders of the Klan.  The grand jury refused to act upon Tourgee’s bill of indictment and subsequently all charges against Long were dismissed.  On 20 December 1871, while under arrest but free on bond, he married Esta Teague. Their union produced six children, of which son Jacob Elmer Long served as lieutenant-governor from 1925 to 1929. 
 
Long opened a law office in Graham until 1872, then served as a railroad conductor until 1873, and taught school for one year.  Relocating to Yanceyville, he practiced law for ten years, and eventually returned for good to Graham.  He was nominated in 1886 by Democrats for Solicitor of the Fifth District, but was defeated; in 1893 he was a successful candidate for the General Assembly and served one term.
 
Jacob A. Long died on 4 October 1923.
 
(Sources: Biography of Jacob Alson Long, Carolina Long Avery, Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, William S. Powell, editor, UNC Press, 1987, pp. 91-92; Reconstruction in North Carolina, J.G. Hamilton, 1914) 

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