General Orders #11
GENERAL ORDERS No. 11.
HDQRS. 13TH A. C., DEPT. OF THE TENN.,
Holly Springs, December 17, 1862
The Jews, as a class violating every regulation of trade established by the Treasury Department and also department orders, are hereby expelled from the department within twenty-four hours from the receipt of this order.
Post commanders will see that all of this class of people be furnished passes and required to leave, and any one returning after such notification will be arrested and held in confinement until an opportunity occurs of sending them out as prisoners, unless furnished with permit from headquarters.
No passes will be given these people to visit headquarters for the purpose of making personal application for trade permits.
By order of Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant:
JNO. A. RAWLINS,
Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, Series I, Vol. 17, Part II, p. 424.
Plea from deported Jewish citizens
December 29, 1862.
Hon. ABRAHAM LINCOLN,
President of the United States:
General Orders, No. 11, issued by General Grant at Oxford, Miss., December the 17th, commands all post commanders to expel all Jews, without distinction, within twenty-four hours, from his entire department. The undersigned, good and loyal citizens of the United States and residents of this town for many years, engaged in legitimate business as merchants, feel greatly insulted and outraged by this inhuman order, the carrying out of which would be the grossest violation of the Constitution and our rights as good citizens under it, and would place us, besides a large number of other Jewish families of this town, as outlaws before the whole world. We respectfully ask your immediate attention to this enormous outrage on all law and humanity, and pray for your effectual and immediate interposition. We would respectfully refer you to the post commander and post adjutant as to our loyalty, and to all respectable citizens of this community as to our standing citizens and merchants. We respectfully ask for immediate instructions to be sent to the commander of this post.
D. WOLFF & BROS.
C. F. KASKELL.
J. W. KASWELL.
Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, Series I, Vol. 17, Part II, p. 506.
The Order is Rescinded
Washington, January 4, 1863.
Holly Springs, Miss.:
A paper purporting to be General Orders, No. 11, issued by you December 17, has been presented here. By its terms it expels all Jews from your department. If such an order has been issued, it will be immediately revoked.
H. W. HALLECK,
Holly Springs, Miss., January 7, 1863.
By direction of General-in-Chief of the Army, at Washington, the general order from these headquarters expelling Jews from the department is hereby revoked.
By order of Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant:
JNO. A. RAWLINS,
Article from THE JEWISH RECORD, New York, Jan.13,1863.
HOW GENERAL GRANT’S ORDER DID WORK BEFORE IT WAS REVOKED.
A chapter of outrages committed against a co-religionist and his lady, in the West Tennessee Department—How Israelites are treated by military officers of the U.S.
An Israelite, formerly largely engaged in the Southern trade, and who at the outbreak of the war was a resident of the State of Georgia, has just returned to this city [New York] on important family business. He has furnished our reporter with the following incidence of his travel through the Union lines.
He left his late residence on the 12th ult. In company with a young lady, to whom he is engaged to be married, and three [other] gentlemen, and after passing the Confederate lines, arrived at Oxford, Miss., on the 18th of last month. Here he was conducted to the headquarters of Col. [sic. Brigadier-General Leonard F.] Ross, of Ill., who received him very courteously and directed the party to the Provost Marshal of the Department, who would undoubtedly grant them passes. This official at once handed them the passports, but before the party could leave the office he took the passports back and tore them up. He then had the whole party conducted before Colonel, now Brigadier-General, [C. Carroll] Marsh, of Illinois, who immediately ordered the party under arrest, when the following conversation ensued between our informant and the Colonel:
Gentleman.—"I should like to know the cause of our detention."
Colonel.—"I do not feel inclined to give any.—in about half an hour you will leave for Cairo and Alton."
Gentleman.—"Colonel, can I sell my horse and buggy?"
Colonel.—"No, sir. You have nothing to sell. You have to leave on the next train under guard."
No time was given to either gentlemen or lady to change their clothing, notwithstanding they were soaking wet, or to refresh themselves, permission being refused by Col. Marsh, amidst a volley of oaths.
Four horses, for which the gentleman paid $650, and the buggy, worth $250, were seized, and when a receipt was asked, Col. Marsh replied, "I will see you d—-d first." The whole party was then placed in charge of Lieut. Wital, of a Chicago regiment, and, in the midst of a piercing cold, conveyed by railroad to Holly Springs.
At Holly Springs the prisoners were taken to a hotel, where, during the night, they were visited by a Polish co-religionist named Black, married to a Miss Hirsch, of [New York], who stated that he was authorized by Captain Hogan, the chief detective of the place, to promise them free [sic] passes, provided they would pay $100 each.
Four of the parties signed the obligation to pay, when Captain Hogan took the paper and cried out, "You intend to bribe a U.S. officer!" He locked the door until the next morning at 4 o’clock, when he returned, stating that each of the parties were fined $100, which was paid, when they were sent under guard to Bolivar, where they remained two days. On the road Col. Marsh was on the train, when he again commenced his abuse of the party in the most ungentlemanly manner, using opprobrious names and oaths in unlimited number, for which the young lady took him so severely to task that he left the car.
They left Bolivar on the 21st for Jackson, Tenn., on a soldiers’ train, which was pushed forward with great celerity, as the commander feared an attack, but they arrived safely at their destination, where they had to take quarters at their own expense and remained ten days, when they were sent to Cairo, Ill.
Here they were handed the following order:
HEADQUARTERS DIV. OF CAIRO,
Cairo, Ill., Jan.4,1863.
Sir,—In accordance with instructions from Headquarters Dept. of West Tenn., you are hereby ordered to leave the Department forthwith, and not return during the continuance of this Rebellion.
By order of Brig. Gen. J[ames].M. Tuttle,
J.B. Sample, Capt. And Adj.
Our informant asked Gen. Tuttle why he was expelled from the Department. The only reply was: "Because you are Jews, and they are neither a benefit to the Union or Confederacy."
While at Holly Springs, the trunk of the lady, with its contents, valued at $800, was wantonly burnt by the soldiers, and the pockets of the whole party were picked while at the Provost Marshal’s office and on the way to the hotel and cars.
The gentleman also informed our reporter that the lady had been rudely treated and insulted by many officers.
Comment is unnecessary.