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Lawrence Raid Revisited

Quantrill's Lawrence Raid Revisited

August 21'st , 1863

By: Clint E. Lacy

Historian James McPherson in his book "Battle Cry of Freedom" described William Quantrill and the Partisan Rangers he commanded as: "some of the most pyschopathic killers in American history".



McPherson goes on to describe Quantrill's Raid on Lawrence , Kansas on August 21'st, 1863 as follows:

"450 men under Quantrill (including the Younger brothers and Frank James) headed for Lawrence, Kansas, the hated center of free soilism since Bleeding Kansas days. After crossing the Kansas line they kidnapped ten farmers to guide them toward Lawrence and murdered each on after his usefulness was over. Approaching the town at dawn on August 21, Quantrill ordered his followers: Kill every male and burn every house. They almost did. The first to die was a United Brethren clergyman, shot through the head while he sat milking his cow. During the next three hours Quantrill's band murdered another 182 men and boys and burned 185 buildings in Lawrence. They rode out of town ahead of pursuing the Union cavalry and after a harrowing chase made it back to their Missouri sanctuary, where they scattered to the woods"1

Unfortunately, this account by McPherson is widely accepted as fact by many of his contemporaries and the public by and large. When the facts are reviewed however; one learns that Quantrill was no psychopath, nor were the men who followed him.

Quantrill and the men who rode with him, and in similar guerilla units were officially given the term Partisan Rangers. Historian Paul R. Peterson gives a more accurate account about Missouri during the War of Northern Aggression, the formation of Missouri's Partisan Ranger organization and a detailed history of Quantrill in his book, "Quantrill of Missouri" {(C) 2003 Cumberland House Publishing}.



Peterson writes that following Confederate General Sterling Price's victories at Wilson's Creek and Lexington Missouri:

"Price's army pulled back and marched South towards Arkansas" and that, "Winter was not far off, and Price realized that he would not be able to feed and supply his men in winter quarters. The situation was also affected by the short enlistment terms of most of Price's soldiers. Many three-month enlistments has already expired. An alternative, which the general endorsed as a military necessity , was to establish groups of Partisan Rangers. Partisans protected their own land and provided for themselves. Organized independent ranger companies would keep Union forces in the state occupied and off balance. A fast , well-armed , mobile force existing off the land and supported by friends and family could do more damage to a Federal Army of occupation than Price could by trying to maneuver a numerically superior adversary into set -piece battles. Price knew that his army required an intelligence network, and the guerrillas could set themselves up in every county and locale. At the same time, partisans could disrupt the enemy's supply lines and communication."2

According to the Missouri Partisan Ranger website:

"Confederate States President, Jefferson Davis, did not believe in guerrilla warfare, considering it too disorganized. However, on April 21, 1862 he approved an act to authorize commissioned officers to form bands of Partisan rangers. It was then that General Thomas C. Hindman, published his "Confederate Partisan Act in Missouri". Hindman believed fully in the military value of guerrilla warfare. General Hindman's "Confederate Partisan Act in Missouri" was issued from his headquarters of The Trans Mississippi Department in Little Rock Arkansas on July 17, 1862. The following is the glorious, official order recognizing the importance of the Missouri Partisan Ranger...

Confederate Partisan Act in Missouri

I. For the more effectual annoyance of the enemy upon our rivers and in our mountains and woods all citizens of this district who are not conscripted are called upon to organize themselves into independent companies of mounted men or infantry, as they prefer, arming themselves and to serve in that part of the district to which they belong.

II. When as many as 10 men come together for this purpose they may organize by electing a captain, 1 sergeant, 1 corporal, and will at once commence operations against the enemy without waiting for special instructions. Their duty will be to cut off Federal pickets, scouts, foraging parties and trains and to kill pilots and others on gunboats and transports, attacking them day and night and using the greatest vigor in their movements. As soon as the company attains the strength required by law it will proceed to elect the other officers to which it is entitled. All such organizations will be reported to their headquarters as soon as practicable. they will receive pay and allowances for subsistence and forage for the time actually in the field, as established by the affidavits of their captains.

III. These companies will be governed in all respects by the same regulations as other troops. Captains will be held responsible for the good conduct and efficiency of their men and will report to these headquarters from time to time.

General Thomas C. Hindman "3

Many modern day historians, media outlets and public education institutions are quick to call Quantrill's raid on Lawrence, Kansas a "massacre". However; there were two primary reasons for Quantrill's raid on the Eastern Kansas abolitionist stronghold. The first involves operations being conducted by Senator James Lane's Kansas Jayhawkers.

As General Price was moving North toward Lexington , following his victory at Wilson's Creek, James Lane and his men were following cautiously behind him plundering Missouri farms and citizens from a safe distance. Once again quoting Peterson:

"While Price's army was closing on Lexington, rather than render assistance to Mulligan, Lane and his ragtag army of twelve hundred Kansas jayhawkers marched instead against the small pro-Southern town of Osceola, Missouri, in St. Clair County. The Missouri editor of the Weston Argus described the sight of fifty shiftless horsemen riding through his town to join "Lane's Brigade"...

They were nearly naked, and minus shoes and hats in many cases. They were not armed, but a number of them had hams of meat on their backs, which they no doubt had stolen from some man's meat house on the road. There are the kind of men that Lane's Brigade is to be composed of; thieves, cutthroats, and midnight robbers. These hirelings passed through town on a full trot, their eyes looking as big as new moons, as they expected at every corner to be stopped or fired on by the Rebels. On a dark night such soldiers would make a splendid charge on a hen-roost, meat house, negro kitchen or stable, but they can't fight honest Americans in daylight."4

This description of the men who belonged to "Lane's Brigade" provided by Peterson , via the writings of a newspaper editor, paint a vivid portrait of New England Puritans, who immigrated to Kansas in pursuit of a socialist Utopia that ultimately left them desolate and hungry. Jim Lane and his "Kansas Brigade" no doubt had a far greater prize in mind than the "hen-roost, meat house and negro kitchen".

"Osceola was one of the more prosperous towns in southwest Missouri. At the beginning of the war, the population was greater than 3000...On September 23,1861, when Lane entered the area , there wasn't a Confederate soldier within miles of the town. With Lane were Col. William Wir's Fourth Kansas Jayhawker Regiment and Col. James Montgomery's Third Kansas Jayhawker Regiment. A few residents fired on the jayhawkers so Lane ordered Capt. Thomas Moonlight to shell the town. After the Union guns had receded the town to rubble, nine male inhabitants were brought to the town square for a drumhead court-martial and shot. Most of the remaining residents were women and children.

Banks were an easy target for the jayhawkers, but the Osceola bank prudently had shipped its funds elsewhere. When Lane found little currency in the bank , he ordered the stores, warehouses and homes ransacked. His men loaded the lot into government wagons and any other vehicles they could confiscate. Among Lane's personal haul were a number of pianos for his home in Lawrence.

He then set the town afire. Of Osceola's eight hundred buildings all but three were turned to ashes. No consideration was given to political leanings of the homeowners. The plunder included 350 horses, 400 head of cattle , 200 kidnapped slaves, 3000 sacks of flour and 50 sacks of coffee. The jayhawkers also took the county records from the courthouse. Lane stole a fine carriage from the home of his colleague, U.S. Sen. Waldo P. Johnson, and sent it to his family in Lawrence along with several silk dresses.

Eyewitnesses noted that the plunder train of 150 wagons was at least a mile long. Property losses were estimated at more than a million dollars. One jayhawker wrote: As the sun went down Sunday night Osceola was a heap of smoldering ruins. Three thousand people were left homeless when Osceola was burned, and perhaps the fairest city in Missouri had been utterly wiped from the earth"5

Also worth noting is the fact that Peterson reveals:

"The Osceola raid was four times more destructive than the 1863 Lawrence Raid".6

If Lawrence, Kansas represented a failed socialist utopia rich in poverty and hunger, then no doubt those who lived there looked resentfully across the border at Osceola, a symbol of Southern culture , free trade, capitalism and prosperity carved out of the Missouri timberline.

Prior to the election of Lincoln and the subsequent invasion of their state by the Union army, Missourians were able to keep the envious Kansans in check. But as the war between Northern and Southern ideals collided, Missourians soon found that they could no longer keep Kansas and its jayhawkers in check, while simultaneously trying to drive back invading hordes from Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Illinois as well.

Jayhawkers such as Lane, Montgomery and Jennison could now legitimize their attacks by wrapping themselves in the Union cause and claiming a "moral high-ground" of fighting for the freedom of the slave. This too was a myth. Remember the jayhawkers who had no problem stealing from the "negro kitchen"?

Many of the slaves taken from Osceola, soon found themselves in a different land, doing the same work, for different "masters". Their benevolent "liberators" now utilizing them to harvest their wheat fields.

"The captured slaves were taken into Kansas and assigned to farmers to work in the wheat fields. Their pay was anything they could steal and carry away from their former owners and sell in public-street auctions in the towns where they were taken.

During the autumn of 1861, Kansas farmers prized the slaves brought out of Missouri by the Lane Brigade. The Lawrence Journal, however, accused Lane of requiring payment from the farmers for providing them. Almost two years later the Leavenworth Daily Conservative affirmed; The large crop of 1863 was made possible only by negro hands.... Almost every farm is supplied with labor in the shape of one or two large, healthy negroes."7

Following General Prices withdrawal from Missouri, Senator James Lane moved his brigade to an encampment outside of Kansas City. Seymour D. Thompson described Lane as:

"The last man we would have taken as a general. He had on citizen' pants, a soldier's blouse, and a dilapidated white hat. He rolled under his dark brows a pair of piercing eyes"8

A New York Times reporter described Lane as:

"a Joe Bagstock Nero fiddling and laughing over the burning of some Missouri Rome". 9

No doubt "The Grim Chieftain" Lane was smug in knowing that now the Missourians and their culture of capitalism , free trade and prosperity were destitute. No longer was the Southern culture and Jeffersonian philosophies of Missouri superior to the failed socialist policies of Kansas and its Puritan Yankees. It too had failed its citizens, with a little help of course, from Lane and his Kansas Jayhawker Brigade and the administration of Abraham Lincoln who legitimized them.

Following Lane's attack and destruction of Osceola, Missouri, many of his Union commanders called for this kind of blatant destruction and looting to stop:

"Major W.E. Prince, in Leavenworth, learned about Lane's depredations, and wrote him that he hoped the looting might be stopped. Governor Robinson appealed directly to General Fremont."10

Earlier that year, Abraham Lincoln in a letter to Simon Cameron had nothing but praise for Lane, writing that:

"I have been reflecting upon the subject, and have concluded that we need the service of such a man out there at once; that we had better appoint him a brigadier-general of volunteers to-day, and send him off with such authority to raise a force (I think two regiments better than three, but as to this I am not particular) as you think will get him into actual work quickest."11

Due to the actions of men like Lane, towards Missouri citizens, General Price's plan to form Partisan Ranger units, soon became a resounding success. In fact, many men who followed Price into Confederate service, began to leave and return to Missouri so that they could become Partisans as well. As early as 1863 the Confederate Government viewed Missouri as "lost". General Price himself had demanded that the Missourians be sent back West of the Mississippi, or he too would return to his home state and "bushwhack it" 12

In his book, Bushwhackers of the Border, Missouri author / historian Patrick Brophy writes:

"Price's successes {in 1861} had forced the Federals to revise their own strategy, settling for humbler objectives. Conceding the Southwest for the time being, they would focus on holding the vital jugular of the Missouri-Mississippi, along the long oxbow-line Cape Girardeau-Rolla-Sedalia-Kansas City-the Border.

But they were reckoning without the guerrillas. As 1862 came, insurgent activity goaded them back onto the offensive"13

The Partisan Rangers were successful at defending their homes and harassing Union occupational troops. They were however; unfairly credited with the act of "No Quarter", or taking no prisoners. Years after the war many former Partisans while recounting their war experiences noted that Partisans considered themselves soldiers, and behaved as such, that is until Henry Halleck issued the first "No Quarter" policy of the war.

In an article entitled, "Quantrill: Soldier or Murderer?" , Martin Kelley writes:

"Quantrill and his men staged numerous raids into Kansas during the early part of the Civil War. He was quickly labeled an outlaw by the Union for his attacks on pro Union forces. He was involved in several skirmishes with Jayhawkers (pro Union guerilla bands) and eventually was made a Captain in the Confederate Army. His attitude towards his role in the Civil War drastically changed in 1862 when the Commander of the Department of Missouri, Major General Henry W. Halleck ordered that guerrillas such as Quantrill and his men would be treated as robbers and murderers, not normal prisoners of war. Before this proclamation, Quantrill acted as if he were a normal soldier adhering to principals of accepting enemy surrender. After this, he gave an order to give 'no quarter'."14

As Missouri Partisan John McCorkle once wrote:

"We tried to fight like soldiers but were declared outlaws, hunted under a black flag and murdered like beasts"15

Halleck also had a special policy directed toward civilians. He:

"sought to run a taut ship , in which everyone in his department, soldier and civilian alike, kept in line. Citizens who manifested support for the enemy could have their property taken through confiscation or contribution"16

1863 saw a new Union commander to oversee operations in Missouri:

"The decision makers in the North began to look for a military leader who could lead them out of the morass of guerrilla warfare. By midsummer they thought they had found such a man. Brig. General Thomas Ewing"17

Ewing was the adopted brother and (ironically) a brother in law to William Tecumseh Sherman, a Union General who became famous for his own infamous atrocities during the war. It has been said that he was an ambitious man who wanted to be a U.S. Senator someday and thought he had a better chance at achieving this goal by gaining favor with James Lane. Perhaps this would explain the actions he would soon conduct in Missouri against civilians, especially women.

"Ewing knew that the guerrillas were aided by their numerous friends and relatives in the area. On August 13, the Kansas City Journal reported that Ewing was at departmental headquarters in St. Louis seeking authorization to banish the families of known guerrillas. From this meeting , five days later, Ewing issued General Orders No. 10."18

Order number 10 required officers to arrest all men and women , not heads of families, who willfully aided "the enemy", it also required that persons who were heads of families who willfully aided the enemy, to leave his military district.

This leads to the second reason that Missouri Partisans raided Lawrence , Kansas on August 21'st, 1863:

"Union authorities acting out of frustration for losing most all of their encounters with the guerrillas, decided to banish all Southerns in the area who were helping these men defend their homes. Federal officials issued orders to execute anyone giving aid to the Partisan Rangers.

In the mid summer of July 1863, Federal Occupational troops began to arrest and detain many area women (mainly those related to Missouri Partisan Rangers) who were said to be spying and gathering food & information for the Partisan Rangers.

Among the women detained were close relatives of prominent Partisan Rangers. These included Mary and Josephine Anderson who were sisters of Bill Anderson.

These women were to be detained until arrangements could be made to transport them to St. Louis, where they would be tried.

All the prisoners were incarcerated into a 3 story building named The Longhorn Store and Tavern located on the site of 1409 Grand Avenue, Kansas City, Missouri.

The Longhorn Store and Tavern was a fairly new structure, and was built in 1856. Awaiting transport, The Longhorn Store and Tavern had been converted into a make shift jail house for women.

On August 13, 1863 the 7 year old building suddenly collapsed.

Four women were killed including 14 year old Josephine Anderson, sister of William T. Anderson. Bill's other sister, Mary Anderson was badly injured (both legs broken).

Also arrested and incarcerated during the collapse were Charity Kerr, sister of John McCorkle (killed), Mrs. Nannie McCorkle, sister-in-law of John McCorkle (uninjured), Susan Vandever, cousin of Cole Younger (killed), Armenia Whitsett Selvey, cousin of Cole Younger (killed).

Here is where the criminal event takes place...

The inner structures and supports of the building were actually weakened by Federal troops so as to make it collapse. Many of the guards had been drinking and celebrating after the collapse, and were overheard bragging and boasting as to the sabotage!!!! "19

Once again, Paul Peterson's "Quantrill of Missouri" provides an intricately detailed account of this deliberate sabotage. He describes the scene and the building that the Missouri Partisan's female relatives were being held as follows:

"The unusual construction of the building was that it was actually two separate buildings that shared a common wall as well as floor joists that ran the width of the buildings, almost fifty feet, and rested on the outside walls of both buildings...The soldiers garrisoned in the adjoining guardhouse had examined the building and realized that it could easily be destroyed. A few days prior to August 13, they began to weaken the structure of the Cockrell Building, which they occupied. The soldiers premeditated their designs, known that if they weakened the structural integrity of their own building, it would cause the instability in the adjoining building being used as the female prison.

They began by removing the center posts on the main floor of the guard-house. This left no support for the roof and the floor joists of their own building, thus creating a lever action and causing the adjoining female prison to collapse on top of their own building.

The soldiers gained access to the basement of the Thomas Building and removed the brick pillars that held up the floor joists of the first floor....Not wanting to injure one of their own men, the assassins next door waited until the lone guard left the prison to fetch the water {that they had sent him to get} when they made the final stroke against the supporting column. With the supporting posts and columns in the Cockrell Building finally cut down and removed, the building began to sink. The structure began to fall as the guard was returning. Once the pressure from above started to drive the top stories into the cellar, the supports in the outside walls and, following a lever action, collapsed on top of the guardhouse. "20

This alone would be enough to make one thirst for revenge, but upon examination of further details, it makes one wonder why the Missouri Partisans spared Lawrence, Kansas as long as they did. The "prisoners" included, Charity McCorkle Kerr, Mollie Grinstaff , Martha Anderson , (who at the ripe old age of ten had angered her Union captors , who in turn, had attached a 12 pound ball and chain to her ankle), Molly Anderson , Nannie Harris McCorkle, Susan Crawford Vandever, Armina Crawford Selvey, and Josephine Anderson.

Peterson writes that after the collapse:

"All but five of the eleven women imprisoned here escaped death. Four were killed immediately...{ten-year-old} Martha Anderson, restricted by the ball-and-chain, tried desperately to make it to a window; she lived but here legs were horribly crushed"21

Missouri Partisan, John McCorkle, who rode with Quantrill would later recall:

"This foul murder was the direct cause of the famous raid on Lawrence, Kansas. We could stand no more. Imagine, if you can, my feelings. A loved sister foully murdered and the widow of a dead brother seriously hurt by a set of men whom the name assassins, murderers and cut-throats would be a compliment...The homes of our friends burned, our aged sires, who dared sympathize with us had either hung or shot in the presence of their families and all their furniture and provisions loaded in wagons and with our live stock taken to the state of Kansas. The beautiful country of Jackson county, Cass County and Johnson County were worse than desert, and on every hillside stood lone blackened chimneys, sad sentinels and monuments to the memory of our once happy homes. And these outrages had been done by Kansas troops, calling themselves soldiers, but a disgrace to the name soldier. And now our innocent and beautiful girls had been murdered in a most foul, brutal, savage and damnable manner. We were determined to have revenge, and so, Colonel Quantrill, and Captain Anderson planned a raid on Lawrence, Kansas, the home of the leaders, Jim Lane and Jennison."22

Quantrill soon sent word for his men to assemble at Captain Perdee's farm on the Blackwater River in Johnson County, Missouri. John Noland, a black scout accompanied him. Noland wished to participate in the raid but Quantrill had other plans. Quantrill send first Noland, then Fletch Taylor to spy on Lawrence. Upon their return, they issued their reports detailing what the Missourians would face there. The reports revealed that Lawrence was lightly defended, and also detailed the amount of plunder, stolen from Missouri that had been seen there.

Afterwards, Quantrill answered questions concerning this raid, then turned to each of his leaders and asked for a vote. The vote from each leader was unanimous , "Lawrence".

According to McCorkle:

"Riding all night, the town was reached at daylight....down the mainstreet , shooting at every blue coat that came in sight. Just before entering the town Colonel Quantrill turned to his men and said; Boys, this is the home of Jim Lane and Jennison; remember that in hunting us they gave no quarter. Shoot every soldier you see but in no way harm a woman or a child. He dashed ahead of his command down Main {Massachusetts} Street , firing his pistol twice, dismounted from his horse and went into the hotel {City Hotel} , where he was met by the landlord, whom he recognized as an old friend and immediately gave orders for the landlord not to be molested and stayed in the hotel and guarded him. During all this time , his command were busy hunting men with blue clothes and setting fire to the town. Jim Lane and Jennison were the ones wanted and some of the boys dashed at once to Jim Lane's house, but, unfortunately for the world, did not find him. They found his saber, which was very handsome, the scabbard being heavily gold-plated. In the parlor of Lanes House there were three pianos and the boys recognized two two of them as having belonged to Southern people in Jackson County, and a great many other things belonging to Southern people were found in his house"23

Historian Paul Peterson, continues in the description of the events that transpired in Lawrence on August 21'st, 1863:

"The hunted men were soldiers, militiamen , jayhawkers , and Redlegs as well as individuals who had aided jayhawkers, notably individuals who had trafficked in the property stolen from Missourians. Also included were newspaper men who for years had expounded virulent, caustic and inflammatory articles. No small example of this was John Speer Sr. He had once written of the guerrillas: Of all the mean, miserable creatures that infest the earth, these canine wretches in human form are the most despicable.

Quantrill's men carried maps that noted the houses marked for destruction. Once a house had been put to the torch, guerrillas surrounded it to ensure the flames were not extinguished and that the house was completely destroyed...

Any house with porch steps made from gravestones stolen from Missouri cemeteries as well as any house where any property was recognized as stolen from Missouri raised the guerrillas' wrath and indignation. They felt compelled to use the torch freely in such instances..

Three hundred buildings comprised the town; the guerrillas singled out around forty for destruction, mostly in the commercial district that housed or made their business by dealing in plundered goods. Because other buildings caught fire and suffered collateral damage due to their proximity to the condemned buildings, more than eighty buildings were eventually destroyed in the flames...

Contrary to what others have written, Quantrill ordered the bloodshed at Lawrence to be minimal. The refugee Savage noted: It would have been much worse for Lawrence if Quantrill had not been along. John Newman Edwards added : Quantrill, during the entire occupation, did not fire his pistol. He saw everything, directed everything, was the one iron man, watchful and vigilant through everything; but he did not kill. He saved many.

Years after the war, an article from the Cincinnati Enquirer, reprinted in the April 22, 1898, Topeka Mail and Breezem, asserted: As a matter of fact investigation has shown that Quantrill's methods of warfare were not looked upon with favor by some. He was too humane, and generally shrank from the needless taking of human life. He led the 300 guerrillas against Lawrence, Kansas , and helped sack the town of Olathe, but those living today, who were under his command on those memorable occasions have testified that Quantrill's horror of needless blood-spilling held his men very much in check and minimized the slaughter."24

Even the Lawrence {Kansas} Journal-World newspaper, in its Sunday September 19, 2004 edition , which re-published an account first printed in 1929 admitted that women and children were not harmed, stating that:

"The invaders divided into parties of six or eight and seemed to infest the whole town. Men, wherever found, were shot down and their homes set afire. Women and children were not harmed, but women's pleas were disregarded" 25

Quantrill and his Missouri Partisans, unlike Lane and his Jayhawkers did not burn or loot Lawrence for envy of the town's prosperity, for it is fact that Lawrence prospered through the theft of Missourians property which was earned through ingenuity and hard work. They did not profess a "moral high ground" of a thinly disguised mission of saving one society through the destruction of another.

The reasons for Quantrill's actions, and the Missourians who rode with him can be summed up in the battle cries heard from them as they galloped into Lawrence shouting, "Remember Osceola and Remember the Girls".

Bibliography:

1. Battle Cry of Freedom, McPherson, Pg. 786

2. Quantrill of Missouri, Peterson, Pgs. 57-58

3. Missouri Partisan Ranger website, Missouri Partisan Act , internet web address: http://www.rulen.com/partisan/part_act.htm

4. Quantrill of Missouri, Peterson, Pg. 61

5.Quantrill of Missouri, Peterson, Pgs. 61-63

6. Ibid

7. Ibid

8. Civil War on the Western Border, Monaghan, Pg. 197

9. Ibid.

10. Civil War on the Western Border, Monaghan, Pg. 196

11. The Writings of Abraham Lincoln, Vol. V found at the following internet address:

http://www.fullbooks.com/The-Writings-of-Abraham-Lincoln-v55.html

12. Bushwhackers of the Border, Brophy, Pg. 47

13.Bushwhackers of the Border, Brophy Pg. 46

14. Quantrill: Soldier or Murderer, Kelley, article found at the following internet address:

http://americanhistory.about.com/od/civilwarpeople/a/wm_quantrill.htm

15. Inside War, Fellman, Pg 254

16. The Hard Hand of War, Grimsley, Pg. 51

17. Quantrill of Missouri, Peterson, Pg. 241

18. Quantrill of Missouri, Peterson, Pg. 247

19. Collapse of Union Jail in Kansas City, Missouri Partisan Ranger website found at the following internet address: http://www.rulen.com/partisan/collapse.htm

20. Quantrill of Missouri, Peterson, Pgs. 251-252

21. Quantrill of Missouri, Peterson, Pgs. 252-253

22. Three Years with Quantrill, Barton, Pgs. 122-123

23. Three Years with Quantrill, Barton, Pgs. 124-126

24. Quantrill of Missouri, Peterson, Pgs. 294-299

25. Quantrills raid left Lawrence in Ruins, killed 143 men, From the September 19, 2004 edition of the Lawrence World-Journal newspaper